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Итак, мы продолжаем работу со словами и выражениями для сочинения. Такие слова по-английски называются discourse markers. (Discourse - рассуждение, высказывание по какому-либо вопросу.) Они являются "вехами", "указателями" при переходе одной части рассуждения к другой, обеспечивая таким образом логическую последовательность изложения мыслей и чёткость структуры сочинения. Чаще всего такие слова и выражения стоят в начале предложения/абзаца сочинения. В этом уроке мы представляем слова и выражения, которые помогут вам сделать логическое заключение, а также изложить какой-либо пункт ваших рассуждений более подробно.


Words and phrases to make things clear or explain a given point in greater detail:

that is to say/in other words - другими/иными словами; иначе говоря; то есть;
that is (лат. - i.e.) - то есть;
indeed - в самом деле;
specifically/in particular/particularly/especially - особенно, в особенности; в частности;
strictly speaking - строго (точнее) говоря; used when you are using words or explaining rules in an exact and correct way: Strictly speaking, spiders are not insects, although most people think they are. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 1995)
simply put/to put it simply - проще говоря
the main point here is that... - главный вопрос/основной момент в том, что ...
on a (more) personal/practical (etc) level - в (более) частном/ практическом и т.д. аспекте/плане
from a (purely theoretical) perspective - с (чисто теоретической) точки зрения
for example/for instance (лат. - e.g./eg) - например

Words and phrases to indicate a logical conclusion:

therefore/consequently - поэтому; следовательно
thus/so - таким образом; поэтому
hence - следовательно; в результате
as a result - в результате; в итоге
it appears that... - очевидно; явно
evidently/it is evident that... - очевидно; несомненно
clearly/undoubtedly/ unquestionably/beyond any doubt - без сомнения; несомненно;

Note: Word choice - thus, so, therefore, consequently, for this reason, as a result. Of all these words, so is least formal (thus - most formal). In formal writing, avoid using So at the beginning of a sentence - it is characteristic of spoken English: The country was beautiful. Consequently I decided to return the next year./I therefore decided to return the next year. (formal style)

Eg: In North American universities, the cost of tuition is very high. Thus, many students are forced to work at part-time jobs while they are studying. (TOEFL writing question # 90)

Eg: I really cannot stand tourist resorts in tropical climates, so if I were given a chance to visit a foreign country for a short vacation, I would steer clear of such hot and overcrowded destinations. (TOEFL writing question # 104)

Eg: Medical technology is increasing at a phenomenal rate. As a result, people now live much longer lives than in any other past generation. (TOEFL writing question # 86)

Eg: It is evident that people have to pay a price for the benefits of their industrial society. But this price seems to be very high if only to think about the problems facing us now: the risk of nuclear accidents, chemical works explosions, acid rain, the destruction of wild life and countryside, air and water pollution.
Eg: It appears that these two arguments do not coincide.

Eg: It appears that the system of having students evaluate their teachers has been used by many universities as an effective means of ensuring that a high standard of education is maintained. (TOEFL writing question # 124)

Eg: The most common argument against the use of nuclear energy is based on safety. The main point here is that, despite the claims made by the nuclear industry, the immediate results of a severe nuclear accident could be so devastating, and the long-term results so insidious that no degree of risk is acceptable.

Eg: A large construction project always necessitates making a considerable amount of noise. Hence, many residents object to construction in their neighborhood. (TOEFL writing question # 67)

Eg: From a purely theoretical perspective, computers can replace "old-fashioned" printed books. Indeed, in the past decade, hundreds of reference books have appeared in electronic form. Clearly, the computer brings a great many benefits not offered by ordinary reference books; for instance, the option of enlarging the type to reduce eyestrain or the ability to copy passages onto a "notebook" page and so on. But when it comes to literature, the electronic-publishing movement has run into resistance from both readers and publishers. Simply put, it is hard to imagine sitting down to read Dostoyevsky or Dickens on a computer. Though, on a more practical level, the computer features may be very useful for those who do literary research or some other productive work. Strictly speaking, it is hard to imagine an avid reader reading a computer novel just for pleasure.

The great power of a real book is that it is intensely personal and highly interactive for it gives room for your imagination. Besides, nothing can compare to the glossy sheen, smooth feel, and gluey smell of a new book. The physical qualities of a book pull you into its pages. Above all, the printed book requires no technology; it is accesible to anyone who can read. Hence, it is very unlikely that real books will be entirely displaced even in the future. (TOEFL writing question # 34)

А теперь мы попрощаемся с вами. До встречи в следующем уроке.

Larissa Koptelova & Lonny Harrison, преподаватели Лингвистической школы общения "Система-3", телефоны: 929-94-91, 929-94-92, факс 209-21-21

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