INTERNET TOEFL SAMPLE
LESSONS # 8
В этом уроке мы представляем вам список слов и выражений, необходимых для написания эссе.
WORDS AND PHRASES FOR AN ESSAY
Words and phrases to organize points chronologically (to introduce a series of reasons, ideas, remarks, etc):
first(ly)/first of all ; second(ly); third(ly);
lastly/last of all/finally - наконец; в заключение;
first and foremost - в первую очередь;
in the first/second/third place; to start/begin with;
for one thing - прежде всего; начать с того, что; для начала;
for another thing - кроме того; во вторых
Note: firstly, secondly... is more formal than first, second...
Eg: The aim of the test was first and foremost to give
confidence to the students.
Eg: There are several reasons why students may prefer
to live in dorms: first(ly), it is cheaper to live in
a dorm than to rent an apartment, second(ly), students
do not have to spend much time to get to school
because dorms are usually located on campus, and
lastly/last of all/finally, students may have a more
active social life. (TOEFL writing question # 36 -
см. информационный бюллетень за 1999-2000 гг.)
Eg: There are two main reasons why these countries should
not involve themselves with nuclear energy at the
present time. In the first place/For one thing, they
have ample supplies of both oil and hydroelectric
energy from which to generate electricity. For another
Words and phrases to indicate the addition of a new point or introduce a related topic:
what is more/more than that/furthermore(formal)/moreover (more formal) - более того; кроме того;
another thing is that...
above all/on top of that - в довершение всего;
as well as - так же (как); не только...,но; в дополнение; помимо;
alongside - наряду с;
besides/apart from - кроме, помимо;
besides - к тому же (particularly when adding a negative idea);
similarly/equally/likewise - подобным образом;
a word must be said about...;
it is important to note that...
Eg: In addition to (having)a BA degree in Psychology, he
also has an MBA.
Note: In BrE, when they put a verb after as well as, they most often use the -ing form. (См. Swan M. Practical English Usage, Oxford, 1997)
(MBA - Master of Business Administration)
Eg: (from a letter of recommendation)... In addition, her
education in Speech Communication and work as a
teacher has provided a great deal of public speaking
and presentation experience. What is more/On top of
that, she is particularly good in a fast-paced
environment with challenges and with co-workers as
enthusiastic as herself.
Eg: Alongside his many other responsibilities, he now has
to be in charge of staff training.
Eg: Although I feel that life might be less interesting if
we knew everything that would happen in the future, there
are certain details about my own life which I am nearly
dying of curiosity to find out. ... Apart from/ Besides
my personal life, I would be very interested to know what
the world will be like in the next century, and in the
next millenium. (TOEFL writing question # 100)
Eg: Now it is generally believed that professional sports
affects health in a negative way. Besides, violence,
greed, and corruption are clearly the antitheses of the
athletic ideal. (TOEFL writing question # 98)
Eg: It is important to note that professional athletes
often finish their careers not because they are of
retirement age, but because they are physically
damaged. (TOEFL writing question # 98)
Eg: Physical labor can exhaust the body very quickly.
Similarly/Equally/Likewise, excessive study can rapidly
reduce mental powers.
Eg: Many parents believe that children should help with
chores around the house at an early age, while others
disagree. Before I tackle this question, a word must be
said about parenting strategies.
(TOEFL writing question # 45)
as well as
Eg: He was a real scholar as well as a great composer.
(= He is not only a great composer, but also a real
He is intelligent as well as good-looking.
(= He is not only good-looking, but also intelligent.)
She composes music as well as plays the piano.
(= She not only plays the piano but also composes music.)
Eg: She sings as well as playing the piano.
As well as doing well on the exams, she wrote a very
good term paper.
Мы продолжим список слов и выражений в следующем уроке, а
теперь попрощаемся с вами.
До встречи в следующем уроке!
Larissa Koptelova & Lonny Harrison, преподаватели Лингвистической школы общения "Система-3",
телефоны: 929-94-91, 929-94-92, факс 209-21-21