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В этом уроке мы представляем вам список слов и выражений, необходимых для написания эссе.


Words and phrases to organize points chronologically (to introduce a series of reasons, ideas, remarks, etc):

first(ly)/first of all ; second(ly); third(ly); lastly/last of all/finally
- наконец; в заключение;
first and foremost - в первую очередь;
in the first/second/third place; to start/begin with; for one thing - прежде всего; начать с того, что; для начала;
for another thing - кроме того; во вторых
Note: firstly, secondly... is more formal than first, second...

    Eg: The aim of the test was first and foremost to give confidence to the students.
    Eg: There are several reasons why students may prefer to live in dorms: first(ly), it is cheaper to live in a dorm than to rent an apartment, second(ly), students do not have to spend much time to get to school because dorms are usually located on campus, and lastly/last of all/finally, students may have a more active social life. (TOEFL writing question # 36 - см. информационный бюллетень за 1999-2000 гг.)
    Eg: There are two main reasons why these countries should not involve themselves with nuclear energy at the present time. In the first place/For one thing, they have ample supplies of both oil and hydroelectric energy from which to generate electricity. For another thing/Secondly, ...
Words and phrases to indicate the addition of a new point or introduce a related topic:

in addition;
what is more/more than that/furthermore
(formal)/moreover (more formal) - более того; кроме того;
another thing is that...
above all/on top of that
- в довершение всего;
as well as - так же (как); не только...,но; в дополнение; помимо;
alongside - наряду с;
besides/apart from - кроме, помимо;
besides - к тому же (particularly when adding a negative idea);
similarly/equally/likewise - подобным образом;
a word must be said about...;
it is important to note that...
    Eg: In addition to (having)a BA degree in Psychology, he also has an MBA.
    (MBA - Master of Business Administration)

    Eg: (from a letter of recommendation)... In addition, her education in Speech Communication and work as a teacher has provided a great deal of public speaking and presentation experience. What is more/On top of that, she is particularly good in a fast-paced environment with challenges and with co-workers as enthusiastic as herself.

    Eg: Alongside his many other responsibilities, he now has to be in charge of staff training.

    Eg: Although I feel that life might be less interesting if we knew everything that would happen in the future, there are certain details about my own life which I am nearly dying of curiosity to find out. ... Apart from/ Besides my personal life, I would be very interested to know what the world will be like in the next century, and in the next millenium. (TOEFL writing question # 100)

    Eg: Now it is generally believed that professional sports affects health in a negative way. Besides, violence, greed, and corruption are clearly the antitheses of the athletic ideal. (TOEFL writing question # 98)

    Eg: It is important to note that professional athletes often finish their careers not because they are of retirement age, but because they are physically damaged. (TOEFL writing question # 98)

    Eg: Physical labor can exhaust the body very quickly. Similarly/Equally/Likewise, excessive study can rapidly reduce mental powers.

    Eg: Many parents believe that children should help with chores around the house at an early age, while others disagree. Before I tackle this question, a word must be said about parenting strategies.
    (TOEFL writing question # 45)
    as well as

    Eg: He was a real scholar as well as a great composer.
    (= He is not only a great composer, but also a real scholar.)
    He is intelligent as well as good-looking.
    (= He is not only good-looking, but also intelligent.)
    She composes music as well as plays the piano.
    (= She not only plays the piano but also composes music.)
Note: In BrE, when they put a verb after as well as, they most often use the -ing form. (См. Swan M. Practical English Usage, Oxford, 1997)
    Eg: She sings as well as playing the piano. As well as doing well on the exams, she wrote a very good term paper.

Мы продолжим список слов и выражений в следующем уроке, а теперь попрощаемся с вами.
До встречи в следующем уроке!

Larissa Koptelova & Lonny Harrison, преподаватели Лингвистической школы общения "Система-3", телефоны: 929-94-91, 929-94-92, факс 209-21-21

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