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Reading Comprehension

Осталось времени:

Passage 1

5 Spiders produce three basic types of webs. The sheet web is a two
dimensional layer of threads seemingly laid out at random. The space web
is a three- dimensional, wispy structure. The orb web, by far the most
familiar, is the two- dimensional cartwheel pattern.
Of the 30.000 spider species, some 6.000 are orb spinners. For three
10 Decades Dr. Peter N. Witt has studied orb spinners, especially a species
called Areneus diadematus, and their webs. Witt is a German-born medical
doctor and self- taught arachnologist, whose passion is to understand the
ways of spiders. Witt has delved deeply into the behavior of spiders and
vastly expanded our knowledge about orb spinners and their webs. Some
15 of his findings have even amazed other arachnologists.
"We have actually compared human building activities to spider
building, and we find an enormous amount of parallet between the two,"
Witt says. For one thing, just like their human counterparts in the building
trades, orb spinners erect a form of removable scaffolding as they weave
20 their webs.
Orb spinners are solitary creatures who dwell one to a web. The web
is home, food source, and mating ground, and it is guarded aggressively.
When a male arrives at mating time, the courtship ritual is an intricate set
of advances and retreats until the female is finally won over and no longer
25  tries to kill her would- be lover.
Orb spinners each weave a new web every day, working in the predawn
darkness and executing the distinctive pattern of concentric circles and
radial lines in a half hour or less. "There is nothing as important as web
building, because without the web there is no food," Witt says.

1.The topic of this passage is
(A) spiders.
(B) different types of webs spiders make.
(C) Dr. Peter N. Witt.
(D) orb spinners and their webs.

2. According to the passage, the difference between the sheet web and the orb web is (A) the pattern.
(B) the size.
(C) the texture.
(D) the length of thread spun by the spiders.

3. The phrase "at random" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) arbitrarily.
(B) quickly.
(C) deftly.
(D) incongruously.

4. We can infer from the passage that an arachnologist is
(A) a photographer.
(B) a medical doctor.
(C) a person who studies spiders.
(D) a person who intensely dislikes spiders.

5. The word "their" in line 14 refers to
(A) humans who build.
(B) other arachnologists.
(C) Witt and his associates.
(D) orb spinners.

6. According to the passage, web-making by spiders and human building activities are
(A) both dependent on removable scaffolding.
(B) hard to compare.
(C) simple to analyze.
(D) lengthy procedures.

7. The word "it" in line 18 refers to
(A) the web.
(B) the food source.
(C) the female spider.
(D) the mating ground.

8. We can infer that the female orb spinner is NOT
(A) hard-working.
(B) cautious.
(C) solitary.
(D) easily wooed.

9. We can conclude from the passage that the purpose of webs is
(A) to initiate courtship of spiders.
(B) to engage spiders in useful activity.
(C) to provide a way for spiders to entrap food.
(D) to display artistic talents of spiders.

Passage 2
5 For any business, the cost of transportation is normally the largest single
item in the overall cost of physical distribution. It doesn't necessarily
follow, though, that a manufacturer should simply pick the cheapest
available form of transportation. Many companies today use the total
physical distribution concept, an approach that involves maximizing the
10 efficiency of physical distribution activities while minimizing their cost.
Often, this means that the company will make cost tradeoffs between the
various physical distribution activities. For instance, air freight may be
much more expensive than rail transport, but a national manufacturer
might use air freight to ship everything from a single warehouse and thus
15 avoid the greater expense of maintaining several warehouses.
When a firm chooses a type of transportation, it has to bear in mind its
other marketing concerns-storage, financing, sales, inventory size, and the
like. Transportation, in fact, can be an especially important sales tool. If the
firm can supply its customers' needs more quickly and reliably than its
20 competitors do, it will have a vital advantage: so it may be more profitable
in the long rub to pay higher transportation costs, rather than risk the loss of
future sales. In addition, speedy delivery is crucial, in same industries. A
mail-order distributor sending fruit from Oregon to Pennsylvania needs the
promptness of air freight. On the other hand, a manufacturer shipping
25  lingerie from New York to Massachusetts may be perfectly satisfied with
slower (and cheaper) truck or rail transport.

1. The passage supports which of the following statements?
(A) Businesses should use the least expensive form of transportation.
(B) Transportation is an important aspect of business.
(C) Rail transportation is usually better for companies because it is cheaper than air transport.
(D) Most manufacturers choose the fastest form of delivery.

2. According to the passage, all of the following would influence the type of transportation that a company might choose EXCEPT
(A) the type of goods to be shipped
(B) the expense of the shipped
(C) the time it takes for delivery
(D) the size of its warehouses

3. The author states in the passage that the total physical distribution concept
(A) is based on the capability and cost-effectiveness of a transportation system
(B) advocates the use of air freight because of its efficiency
(C) suggests trading goods for transportation services
(D) relies on using warehouses for storing goods

4. The phrase "cost tradeoffs" in line 7 means that companies
(A) sometimes engage in bartering goods
(B) may choose an expensive form of transportation if costs can be cut in another area
(C) prefer warehouses to air transportation
(D) rarely use rail transport

5. It can be inferred fm the passage that transportation is
(A) important to continued successful sales
(B) independent of other business concerns
(C) not used effectively by businesses
(D) too expensive for most mail-order industries to use

6. We can conclude from the passage that a business that deals in perishable goods would probably choose to ship by
(A) rail
(B) truck
(C) air freight
(D) any type of cheap transport

7. The word "its" in line 15 refers to which of the following?
(A) Competitors
(B) Firm
(C) Customers
(D) Sales fool

8. This passage would probably be assigned reading in which of the following academic courses?
(A) Marketing
(B) Statistics
(C) Mechanical engineering
(D) History

  Correct answers:

 Tips show your correct answers.

Correct answers:
Question 1   
Question 2   
Question 3   
Question 4   
Question 5   
Question 6   
Question 7   
Question 8   
Question 9   
Question 10 
Question 11 
Question 12 
Question 13 
Question 14 
Question 15 
Question 16 
Question 17 

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